March 7, 2017

Spatial Management of Risks (Geographical Information by Gerard Brugnot

By Gerard Brugnot

Spatial research is an more and more vital device for detecting and fighting various possibility and predicament phenomena resembling floods in a geographical quarter. This publication concentrates on examples of prevention but additionally provides predicament keep watch over recommendation and functional case studies.  a few chapters tackle city functions within which vulnerabilities are focused in region; others deal with extra rural parts with extra scattered phenomena.

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Sample text

2; the annual average rainfall (Pt) equals 933 mm, and heavy rain (Pu) is 488 mm. Relating to the physico-chemical data of the research product, two intrinsic parameters of phytosanitary products are taken into account: – their sharing factor Koc=100 ± 78 g/cm3; Coupled Use of Spatial Analysis and Fuzzy Arithmetic 29 – their half life T1/2 =60 ± 32 days. These two parameters are considered as highly uncertain. The indicator also takes into account the product application process (M). It is advisable to apply atrazine in an oil-water emulsion.

The spatial analysis capabilities of the GIS are then used to emphasize the information relevant to crisis management. With the GISRISK application, the effect distances of sample accidents are cross-referenced with a vulnerability map [GRI 01]. The term map refers to the need for digital geographic information. The term vulnerability refers to land use knowledge. The production of a vulnerability map consists of several steps. The digital mapping of land use is the first to be edited from [GRI 01]: – SPOT satellite images providing a land use overview adapted to the selected issue.

5. 5. Conclusion The VESPP index, which enables us to assess the vulnerability of surface waters to phytosanitary products, is designed to be easy to use and to represent, as closely as possible, the transfer mechanisms of these products into the environment. It was shown that the coupled use of fuzzy arithmetic (to take into account the inaccuracy of some parameters) with a GIS for the index calculation is a simple way to assess the vulnerability of surface waters. Even without knowing the exact values of certain rates, it can inform us of the disparities of a watershed.

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