By James Allen
Unique and penetrating, this booklet investigates of the suggestion of inference from indicators, which performed a primary function in historical philosophical and clinical technique. It examines an enormous bankruptcy in historical epistemology: the debates concerning the nature of proof and of the inferences in keeping with it--or indicators and sign-inferences as they have been referred to as in antiquity. because the first complete remedy of this subject, it fills an incredible hole within the histories of technology and philosophy.
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Extra info for Inference from Signs: Ancient Debates about the Nature of Evidence
373. 1–14). The ﬁrst, and to his way of thinking more correct, holds that tokens are necessary and always followed by that for which they are evidence, while signs are followed by that for which they are evidence only for the most part. It seems clear from the vocabulary Galen uses that he has an Aristotelian logic in mind. For he takes the necessity of the token to consist in the fact that one of the terms of which the premiss (πρ τασις) is composed follows the other always, whereas in the case of the sign it follows only for the most part, presumably with the major premiss of a syllogism in Barbara in view.
Burnyeat, ‘Enthymeme’, 33 with n. 83. Cf. Entwicklung, 22–3. S. Raphael, ‘Rhetoric, Dialectic and Syllogistic Argument: Aristotle’s Position in “Rhetoric” I–II’, Phronesis, 19 (1974), 153–67. 30 Study I sion. I shall take up this question ﬁrst, before returning to consider whether this view was the result of a change. Although they are not characterized as reputable in the Rhetoric, second- and third-ﬁgure signs are, to all appearances, treated as sources of genuine enthymemes in the Analytics-oriented passages and contrasted with tokens, which are once more distinguished by their necessary character.
114). The textual grounds for this step are slight; earlier, as Sprute himself notes, in e·ect the opposite conclusion, that it is the word ‘necessary’ which has been mistakenly interpolated, was reached by H. Maier, Die Syllogistik des Aristoteles (Tubingen: Laupp, 1896–1900), ii/1. 481 with n. 2. For the argument against cf. • Burnyeat, ‘Enthymeme’, 33 with n. 83. Cf. Entwicklung, 22–3. S. Raphael, ‘Rhetoric, Dialectic and Syllogistic Argument: Aristotle’s Position in “Rhetoric” I–II’, Phronesis, 19 (1974), 153–67.
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