By Stuart S. Nagel
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9. , see note 5 above. 10. Nagel, see note 4, 24-9. 11. Nagel, see note 4, 9. 12. Christopher Alexander, Notes on the Synthesis of Form (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966). 13. In The Passive Solar Energy Book, Edward Mazria (1979) used the Pattern Language methodology to develop a set of design rules for passive solar construction. 32 Least Cost Utility Planning 14. See for example William Dunn, Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981), 119-26, 226; and Stuart Nagel, "Evaluation Analysis with Microcomputers", 42 Public Productivity Review Summer, 3-6 (1987).
For this exercise the point is not so much whether one method is fundamentally better than the other. The GP analysis is faster and requires less algebraic manipulation than P/G%. Either tool can be used to perform this type of analysis. The important point is that either tool is better than the status quo. Too often that has been not to undertake such comparisons across multiple criteria at all, or to force all non-monetary criteria into dollar values, or to consider non-monetary criteria only after a preliminary screening based on monetary criteria alone.
At the same time another goal is to select the options that require the least government regulation and oversight; those that are most secure, reliable, and are least vulnerable or risky from social and military standpoints. The goal is simultaneous optimization of multiple impacts, accounting for the whole life-cycle of each option considered. There are two additional decision-aiding techniques to discuss in this context. First, policy makers must be concerned with how to develop their list of relevant impacts or criteria for analysis.
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