By Ian Hickman
This publication is meant for the training digital engineer explaining analog digital circuits as easily as attainable. Its goal is to take the reader inside of digital circuits explaining precisely what they do by utilizing vector diagrams
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W . B o d e , D . V a n Westrand C o m p a n y Inc, N e w Y o r k 1945. 2 . T r a n s f e r F u n c t i o n s , C a t h o d e R a y , p a g e 177, W i r e l e s s W o r l d , A p r i l 1962. 3. State Variables for Engineers (Chapter 3), Da R u s s o , R o y , C l o s e ; J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , Inc. 1965. Chapter 3 Active components If passive components are the cogs and pinions of a circuit, an active component is the mainspring. The analogy is not quite exact p e r h a p s , for the mainspring stores and releases the energy to drive the clockwork, whereas an active c o m p o n e n t drives a circuit by controlling the release of energy from a battery or power supply in a particular manner.
They cannot be so described; an example is the hiss-like signal from a radio receiver with the aerial disconnected. We are particularly interested in determinate functions of time, and we have met some already. O n e example was the exponential function, where vt (the voltage at any instant t) is given by v, = V(, e"^ describing a voltage which increases indefinitely or dies away to zero (according to whether α is positive or negative) from its initial value of v,, at the instant t = 0. g. the output voltage of an A C generator.
The magnitude of the current from the constant current generator is controlled by the grid/cathode voltage V^,. (f) Typical audio amplifier using cathode bias (auto bias). (g) Anode (output) characteristics. Vy relative to cathode. Active components /•a, resulting in a ciiange of anode voltage. So A V g g . 3) The ratio AVJAVg is called μ (lower-case G r e e k letter m u ) , the amplification factor of the triode, and in our example μ = (500 x 10-')(20 x 10') = 10 volts per volt. 2d, the anode load resistor Ri is (as far as changes in anode current Δ / a are concerned) in parallel with r,,; so the voltage gain A is given by A = g^R', where R' is the parallel resistance of R^ and r,,.
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