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Additional resources for Advanced Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers for Cu Interconnects
This results in a decrease of the bond lengths and, consequently, a decrease of the TaN lattice parameter. The continuous approach to the Ta4N5 structure, which can be described as a tetragonally distorted fcc TaN lattice due to an incomplete occupation of the Ta sub-lattice [170, 231], is characterized by the above-mentioned intensity increase at small diffraction angles. At sufficient thermal activation (T = 1000 °C), the complete transformation from fcc TaN into tetragonal Ta4N5 occurs. Further heat supply leads to the formation of hexagonal Ta5N6.
For T ≥ 800 °C, additional changes are observed in the XRR curves. Besides an intensity dip at small scattering angles, the Cu layer oscillations are no longer visible (Figure 10). In the GDOES depth profiles, the TaN barrier signal appears at the sample surface and copper is detected in the substrate region (Figures 11 (a) and (b), curves (4), (5)). On a first glance, these observations point to strong Cu diffusion into SiO2. However, this explanation would be inconsistent with the XRD results which show Bragg reflections of polycrystalline copper.
8 Cu Intensity [arb. 6 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) as-dep. 8 Sputter time [s] Figure 11. GDOES depth profiles of the Ta distribution (a) and of the Cu distribution (b) for the Cu/TaN/SiO2/Si sample in the as-deposited state and after annealing at several temperatures T for t = 1 h. Figure 12. SEM surface image of the Cu/TaN/SiO2/Si sample after annealing at T = 900 °C for t = 1 h. The formation of islands is based on the fact that a thin layer deposited onto a substrate is characterized by a large surface area compared to its volume.
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