By Edsger W. Dijkstra
He starts off through contemplating the questions, «What is an algorithm?» and «What are we doing after we program?» those questions lead him to an enticing digression at the semantics of programming languages, which, in flip, results in essays on programming language constructs, scoping of variables, and array references. Dijkstra then provides, as promised, a set of gorgeous algorithms. those algorithms are some distance ranging, masking mathematical computations, several types of sorting difficulties, trend matching, convex hulls, and extra. simply because this is often an outdated e-book, the algorithms offered are often not the simplest to be had. notwithstanding, the worth in studying A self-discipline of Programming is to take in and comprehend the way in which that Dijkstra thought of those difficulties, which, in many ways, is extra invaluable than one thousand algorithms.
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All experiments take advantage of photons at telecommunication wavelengths and optical fibers, and use timebin encoding which enables us to demonstrate the different protocols over distances of a few kilometers to several tens of kilometers. In addition, we developed a new protocol for quantum key distribution which also enables extending the maximum transmission distance in spite of so-called photon number splitting eavesdropper attacks and non-ideal faint laser pulses instead of true single photons.
The rate at which Bob detects photons, decreases exponentially with the distance. Hence, for any detector/channel pair, there is a distance limit beyond which quantum cryptography is unpractical . Attractive ways around this limitation are quantum repeaters and quantum relays. The idea of a relay consists in dividing the channel into n equal trunks [67,68]. 12. 12 (a) Quantum teleportation as a quantum relay. (b) Fidelity of the transmitted quantum state as a function of the distance for different configurations.
Tittel, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, Applied Phys. , 70, 793–795, 1997. 5. W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, Phys. Rev. , 81, 3563–3566, 1998; H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, J. Brendle, and W. Tittel, Phys. Rev. A, 63, 022111/1– 10, 2001. 6. W. Tittel and G. Weihs, Quantum Information and Computation, 1, 3–56, 2001. 7. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, Rev. , 74, 145–195, 2002. 8. N. Gisin and N. Brunner, quant-ph/0312011, to appear in the proceedings of the Les Houches summer school, 2003.
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