By Max Lungarella, Fumiya Iida, Josh Bongard, Rolf Pfeifer
This Festschrift quantity, released in social gathering of the fiftieth Anniversary of synthetic Intelligence, comprises 34 refereed papers written by means of major researchers within the box of synthetic Intelligence. The papers have been rigorously chosen from the invited lectures given on the fiftieth Anniversary Summit of AI, held on the Centro Stefano Franscini, Monte Verità, Ascona, Switzerland, July 9-14, 2006.
The summit supplied a venue for discussions on historic, company, political and academic views of AI; medical trade at the cutting-edge; speculations in regards to the destiny; contributions by way of researchers from assorted yet comparable components; displays of the newest learn through best scientists within the box; in addition to many casual discussions one of the members and viewers. the chosen papers replicate the breadth of the themes offered and mentioned on the summit, overlaying topics starting from the background and clients of AI, to speech reputation and processing, linguistics, bionics, and consciousness.
The papers are prepared in topical sections on historic and Philosophical concerns; details conception and Quantification; Morphology and Dynamics; Neurorobotics; computer Intelligence, Cognition, and usual Language Processing; Human-Like Intelligence: Motivation, feelings, and realization; robotic systems; and artwork and AI.
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Many theoretical computer scientists actually regarded much of the field with contempt for its perceived lack of hard theoretical results. ETH Zurich’s Turing award winner and creator of the PASCAL programming language, Niklaus Wirth, did not hesitate to link AI to astrology. Practical AI of that era was dominated by rule-based expert systems and Logic Programming. That is, despite Solomonoff’s fundamental results, a main focus of that time was on logical, deterministic deduction of facts from previously known facts, as opposed to (probabilistic) induction of hypotheses from experience.
Many ideas from logic could be pulled into AI and AI gave new challenges to logic, such as the problem of non-monotonic reasoning. Also the kinds of concepts that might be needed in expert problem solving or language understanding were researched and tested by building systems that used them. Initially there was some hope to find the ultimate conceptual primitives (Roger Schank’s set of fourteen primitive universal concepts is one example (Schank, 1975)), but, failing that, large projects were started, such as Doug Lenat’s CYC project, to do a massive analysis of human concepts and put them in a machine-usable form (Lenat, 1995).
3]) autonomously drove 1000 miles from Munich to Denmark and back, in traffic at up to 120 mph, automatically passing other cars (a safety driver took over only rarely in critical situations). Japanese labs (Honda, Sony) and Pfeiffer’s lab at TU Munich built famous humanoid walking robots. Engineering problems often seemed more challenging than AI-related problems. 32 J. Schmidhuber Another source of progress was the dramatically improved access to all kinds of data through the WWW, created by Tim Berners-Lee at the European particle collider CERN (Switzerland) in 1990.
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