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Joanne Close, "A case for arts education," Teach Magazine (Nov/Dec 1997), 26-29, para. 4, online, Canadian Business and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO], AN 3701127, accessed 2000, January 5. [F] Close, Joanne. "A case for arts education." S. veteran and or any other status protected by state or federal law is prohibited in all employment decisions. Moral rights  are the rights given to authors and creators of copyrighted works that are recognized in civil law jurisdictions rather than explicitly in copyright law.� In contrast to the economic rights that are protected under copyright, moral rights are concerned with protecting the personality and reputation of authors, giving them the ability to control the eventual fate of their works.� Moral rights are codified in the Berne Convention, which the United States ratified in 1988.� Moral rights of authors and artists are recognized in European copyright law but not very much in the USA, at least not yet.� In the USA, an artist�s moral rights are protected primarily by defamation, privacy, or unfair competition laws rather than by copyright law, but visual artists are provided with some special protection through the Visual Artists Rights Act (VARA)  of 1990.��� This law applies strictly to unique, one-of-a-kind, visual works of fine art such as a painting, drawing, print, sculpture, or still photograph, that exist as a single copy or only as a limited edition of 200 or fewer copies that are individually signed and numbered by the author.� The law does not cover works of graphic design, maps, charts, technical drawings, databases, electronic publications, motion pictures, books, magazines, advertisements, works for trade or commercial purposes, or reproductions.� VARA also does not apply to works for hire.� The law was designed to protect the post-sale rights of creators of unique pieces of visual fine art--even if the artist has signed over the copyright to someone else or has sold the work, they still retain the moral rights under VARA.� An author of a visual artwork has the right to claim authorship of that work and has the right to prevent the use of their name as the author of any work of visual art that they did not create.� Noone can put my name on a visual work of art that I didn�t create, and they can�t take my name off a work that I did create.� Moral rights as outlined in VARA allow an author to prevent revision, alteration, or distortion of their work, even if it has been sold to someone else.� An author has the right to publish works anonymously or pseudonymously.� The author of a visual artwork also has the right to prevent the use of their name as the author of a distortion, mutilation, or other modification of the work that would be prejudicial to their honor or reputation.� If someone draws a moustache on a portrait that I painted, they can�t claim that I did it.� It also prevents the destruction, modification, or defacement of an artistic work of recognized stature.� Unlike copyright, moral rights under VARA are not transferable, and end with the life of the author.�� For joint works created by two or more authors, the moral rights endure for a term consisting of the life of the last surviving author.
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